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ENGLISH COMPREHENSION TEST

1. Comprehension Passage

There are one or two things this country can teach others, one of them is the art of writing obituaries. One suspects that the reason why some of our newspapers still manage to break even is because of the great amount of revenue they derive from obituaries. It is not unusual for about one quarter of the volume of an average daily to be constituted of obituaries and in in memorial alone. One possible explanation for this, it has been argued, is that Nigerians value their dead greatly. And there is a saying amongst us that you do not say evil things against the dead. This is obviously the philosophy behind the large dose of encomiums with which our dead are bestowed. From evidences of these obituaries and in memorial, every dead Nigerian must have been something of a saint while alive. This would explain why the death of most Nigerians is attributed to the evil Machinations of the wicked. Only very few people in our country die natural death, and even when they do, the obituaries, etc always give the impression that such deaths constitute the saddest loss to befall the deceased family. And that is why writers of these obituaries and their allied advertisements are experts on ‘mortuary stylistics’. This ‘mortuary stylistics’ the study in the art of eulogizing the dead and making their loss sound so heart breaking, is one of the commodities we can export to other countries.

The tone of this passage is

 

 

 

 

2. Comprehension Passage

There are one or two things this country can teach others, one of them is the art of writing obituaries. One suspects that the reason why some of our newspapers still manage to break even is because of the great amount of revenue they derive from obituaries. It is not unusual for about one quarter of the volume of an average daily to be constituted of obituaries and in in memorial alone. One possible explanation for this, it has been argued, is that Nigerians value their dead greatly. And there is a saying amongst us that you do not say evil things against the dead. This is obviously the philosophy behind the large dose of encomiums with which our dead are bestowed. From evidences of these obituaries and in memorial, every dead Nigerian must have been something of a saint while alive. This would explain why the death of most Nigerians is attributed to the evil Machinations of the wicked. Only very few people in our country die natural death, and even when they do, the obituaries, etc always give the impression that such deaths constitute the saddest loss to befall the deceased family. And that is why writers of these obituaries and their allied advertisements are experts on ‘mortuary stylistics’. This ‘mortuary stylistics’ the study in the art of eulogizing the dead and making their loss sound so heart breaking, is one of the commodities we can export to other countries.

‘Mortuary stylistics’ as used in the passage refers to the

 

 

 

 

 

3. Comprehension Passage

There are one or two things this country can teach others, one of them is the art of writing obituaries. One suspects that the reason why some of our newspapers still manage to break even is because of the great amount of revenue they derive from obituaries. It is not unusual for about one quarter of the volume of an average daily to be constituted of obituaries and in in memorial alone. One possible explanation for this, it has been argued, is that Nigerians value their dead greatly. And there is a saying amongst us that you do not say evil things against the dead. This is obviously the philosophy behind the large dose of encomiums with which our dead are bestowed. From evidences of these obituaries and in memorial, every dead Nigerian must have been something of a saint while alive. This would explain why the death of most Nigerians is attributed to the evil Machinations of the wicked. Only very few people in our country die natural death, and even when they do, the obituaries, etc always give the impression that such deaths constitute the saddest loss to befall the deceased family. And that is why writers of these obituaries and their allied advertisements are experts on ‘mortuary stylistics’. This ‘mortuary stylistics’ the study in the art of eulogizing the dead and making their loss sound so heart breaking, is one of the commodities we can export to other countries.

One suspects that the reason why some of our newspaper still manage to break even…….suggests that some Nigerian newspapers 

 

 

 

 

4. Comprehension Passage

There are one or two things this country can teach others, one of them is the art of writing obituaries. One suspects that the reason why some of our newspapers still manage to break even is because of the great amount of revenue they derive from obituaries. It is not unusual for about one quarter of the volume of an average daily to be constituted of obituaries and in in memorial alone. One possible explanation for this, it has been argued, is that Nigerians value their dead greatly. And there is a saying amongst us that you do not say evil things against the dead. This is obviously the philosophy behind the large dose of encomiums with which our dead are bestowed. From evidences of these obituaries and in memorial, every dead Nigerian must have been something of a saint while alive. This would explain why the death of most Nigerians is attributed to the evil Machinations of the wicked. Only very few people in our country die natural death, and even when they do, the obituaries, etc always give the impression that such deaths constitute the saddest loss to befall the deceased family. And that is why writers of these obituaries and their allied advertisements are experts on ‘mortuary stylistics’. This ‘mortuary stylistics’ the study in the art of eulogizing the dead and making their loss sound so heart breaking, is one of the commodities we can export to other countries.

 

Obituaries are very popular in Nigeria because

 

 

 

 

5. Comprehension Passage

There are one or two things this country can teach others, one of them is the art of writing obituaries. One suspects that the reason why some of our newspapers still manage to break even is because of the great amount of revenue they derive from obituaries. It is not unusual for about one quarter of the volume of an average daily to be constituted of obituaries and in in memorial alone. One possible explanation for this, it has been argued, is that Nigerians value their dead greatly. And there is a saying amongst us that you do not say evil things against the dead. This is obviously the philosophy behind the large dose of encomiums with which our dead are bestowed. From evidences of these obituaries and in memorial, every dead Nigerian must have been something of a saint while alive. This would explain why the death of most Nigerians is attributed to the evil Machinations of the wicked. Only very few people in our country die natural death, and even when they do, the obituaries, etc always give the impression that such deaths constitute the saddest loss to befall the deceased family. And that is why writers of these obituaries and their allied advertisements are experts on ‘mortuary stylistics’. This ‘mortuary stylistics’ the study in the art of eulogizing the dead and making their loss sound so heart breaking, is one of the commodities we can export to other countries.

Which of the following can be deduced from the passage?

 

 

 

 

6. Comprehension Passage

Developments in electronic science have transformed the art of record keeping to the modern age. Traditionally, records of events were kept only in people’s minds. It depends very much on the retentive power of the human memory. This was extremely dangerous as people either forgot events wholly or in part or deliberately falsified details to suit their various interests. Interminable arguments were thus order of the day. Even writing which replaced mental recording was not entirely free from these shortcomings as untruths could be written as true either willingly or inadvertently. With the advent of the electronic memory, however these dangers have been largely overcome. Recording on audio and video cassettes now show not what happened, but also who did or said what including how and when

The author believes that electronic recording is 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Comprehension Passage

Developments in electronic science have transformed the art of record keeping to the modern age. Traditionally, records of events were kept only in people’s minds. It depends very much on the retentive power of the human memory. This was extremely dangerous as people either forgot events wholly or in part or deliberately falsified details to suit their various interests. Interminable arguments were thus order of the day. Even writing which replaced mental recording was not entirely free from these shortcomings as untruths could be written as true either willingly or inadvertently. With the advent of the electronic memory, however these dangers have been largely overcome. Recording on audio and video cassettes now show not what happened, but also who did or said what including how and when

The writer believes that the art of record keeping has

 

 

 

 

8. Comprehension Passage

Developments in electronic science have transformed the art of record keeping to the modern age. Traditionally, records of events were kept only in people’s minds. It depends very much on the retentive power of the human memory. This was extremely dangerous as people either forgot events wholly or in part or deliberately falsified details to suit their various interests. Interminable arguments were thus order of the day. Even writing which replaced mental recording was not entirely free from these shortcomings as untruths could be written as true either willingly or inadvertently. With the advent of the electronic memory, however these dangers have been largely overcome. Recording on audio and video cassettes now show not what happened, but also who did or said what including how and when

How many stages of development did the writer mention while discussing the art of record keeping?

 

 

 

 

9. Comprehension Passage

Developments in electronic science have transformed the art of record keeping to the modern age. Traditionally, records of events were kept only in people’s minds. It depends very much on the retentive power of the human memory. This was extremely dangerous as people either forgot events wholly or in part or deliberately falsified details to suit their various interests. Interminable arguments were thus order of the day. Even writing which replaced mental recording was not entirely free from these shortcomings as untruths could be written as true either willingly or inadvertently. With the advent of the electronic memory, however these dangers have been largely overcome. Recording on audio and video cassettes now show not what happened, but also who did or said what including how and when

According to the author, human memory is unreliable because people

 

 

 

 

10. Comprehension Passage

Developments in electronic science have transformed the art of record keeping to the modern age. Traditionally, records of events were kept only in people’s minds. It depends very much on the retentive power of the human memory. This was extremely dangerous as people either forgot events wholly or in part or deliberately falsified details to suit their various interests. Interminable arguments were thus order of the day. Even writing which replaced mental recording was not entirely free from these shortcomings as untruths could be written as true either willingly or inadvertently. With the advent of the electronic memory, however these dangers have been largely overcome. Recording on audio and video cassettes now show not what happened, but also who did or said what including how and when

From the passage, we gather that writings were almost

 

 

 

 

11. Passage
Those who are familiar with it will tell you that Ludo, like human life itself, is a game both of chance and skill. You need skill in deciding how to make the most advantageous use of the figures that turn up on the die when you cast it. Since each player has at least four alternative ways of using his figures, two players with equal luck may fare differently, depending on how cleverly each one uses his figures. The element of luck, again as in human life, plays a dominant role however. For no matter how skilful a player may be in using the figures he gets on the die, he has a slim chance of winning if he continually throws low figures. While a combination of ones and twos may be useful in checking the advance of one’s opponents, it will not take one home fast enough to win. On the other hand: consistent throws of sixes and fives with the very minimum of skill, will help a player to home all his four counters before any of the three other players, unless, of course, he has no idea of the game at all.

According to the passage Ludo is

 

 

 

 

12. Comprehension Passage  
Those who are familiar with it will tell you that Ludo, like human life itself, is a game both of chance and skill. You need skill in deciding how to make the most advantageous use of the figures that turn up on the die when you cast it. Since each player has at least four alternative ways of using his figures, two players with equal luck may fare differently, depending on how cleverly each one uses his figures. The element of luck, again as in human life, plays a dominant role however. For no matter how skilful a player may be in using the figures he gets on the die, he has a slim chance of winning if he continually throws low figures. While a combination of ones and twos may be useful in checking the advance of one’s opponents, it will not take one home fast enough to win. On the other hand: consistent throws of sixes and fives with the very minimum of skill, will help a player to home all his four counters before any of the three other players, unless, of course, he has no idea of the game at all.

It is implied in the passage that two players may fare equally if they

 

 

 

 

13.

Comprehension Passage

Those who are familiar with it will tell you that Ludo, like human life itself, is a game both of chance and skill. You need skill in deciding how to make the most advantageous use of the figures that turn up on the die when you cast it. Since each player has at least four alternative ways of using his figures, two players with equal luck may fare differently, depending on how cleverly each one uses his figures. The element of luck, again as in human life, plays a dominant role however. For no matter how skilful a player may be in using the figures he gets on the die, he has a slim chance of winning if he continually throws low figures. While a combination of ones and twos may be useful in checking the advance of one’s opponents, it will not take one home fast enough to win. On the other hand: consistent throws of sixes and fives with the very minimum of skill, will help a player to home all his four counters before any of the three other players, unless, of course, he has no idea of the game at all.

It is implied in the passage, that in Ludo threes and fours are

 

 

 

 

14. According to the passage, a player with consistently high throws will

 

 

 

 

15.

Comprehension Passage

Those who are familiar with it will tell you that Ludo, like human life itself, is a game both of chance and skill. You need skill in deciding how to make the most advantageous use of the figures that turn up on the die when you cast it. Since each player has at least four alternative ways of using his figures, two players with equal luck may fare differently, depending on how cleverly each one uses his figures. The element of luck, again as in human life, plays a dominant role however. For no matter how skilful a player may be in using the figures he gets on the die, he has a slim chance of winning if he continually throws low figures. While a combination of ones and twos may be useful in checking the advance of one’s opponents, it will not take one home fast enough to win. On the other hand: consistent throws of sixes and fives with the very minimum of skill, will help a player to home all his four counters before any of the three other players, unless, of course, he has no idea of the game at all.

In the passage, the possession of skill specifically enables a player to

 

 

 

 

16. Comprehension Passage

Dear John,
Many thanks for your letter. I was glad to hear that you had done so well in your examinations. Let me send you my hearty congratulations. You certainly deserved this result as I know you worked very hard. You ask how I have been spending the time since I took my examinations. I have been waiting so eagerly for the result that, I must admit, I have not done half of the things I planned to do during this extended holiday. However, I have been doing a lot of reading. There were so many different things I was interested in when I was at school and did not have the time to read about because they were not on the syllabus. I have read two books about geology, which is a fascinating subject. I hope to make a hobby of geology when I get to the University. It will make a change from the study of law. i have also read several novels mostly modern ones by authors like Graham Greene, C.S Foster and Somerset Maugham. How enjoyable it is to read a book for pleasure and not for examination! I have not given a thought to law, and not read one book about the subject. I shall have e four long years at the University to devote to it.
I have also been going once or twice a week to the National Boy’s Club. I took part in the table-tennis tournament, but I did not do very well, I’m afraid. I have been playing football for the Club every Sunday afternoon. I will certainly let you know my examination results as soon as I have them. I must say that I become less confident about the result each day. It was encouraging to hear that this was the case with you, and since you did so well perhaps there is still hope for me!
Yours sincerely
Osman.

John deserves to pass his examinations because

 

 

 

 

 

17. Comprehension Passage

Dear John,
Many thanks for your letter. I was glad to hear that you had done so well in your examinations. Let me send you my hearty congratulations. You certainly deserved this result as I know you worked very hard. You ask how I have been spending the time since I took my examinations. I have been waiting so eagerly for the result that, I must admit, I have not done half of the things I planned to do during this extended holiday. However, I have been doing a lot of reading. There were so many different things I was interested in when I was at school and did not have the time to read about because they were not on the syllabus. I have read two books about geology, which is a fascinating subject. I hope to make a hobby of geology when I get to the University. It will make a change from the study of law. i have also read several novels mostly modern ones by authors like Graham Greene, C.S Foster and Somerset Maugham. How enjoyable it is to read a book for pleasure and not for examination! I have not given a thought to law, and not read one book about the subject. I shall have e four long years at the University to devote to it.
I have also been going once or twice a week to the National Boy’s Club. I took part in the table-tennis tournament, but I did not do very well, I’m afraid. I have been playing football for the Club every Sunday afternoon. I will certainly let you know my examination results as soon as I have them. I must say that I become less confident about the result each day. It was encouraging to hear that this was the case with you, and since you did so well perhaps there is still hope for me!
Yours sincerely
Osman.

You will regard Osman during term time as a student who reads

 

 

 

 

 

18.

Comprehension Passage

Dear John,
Many thanks for your letter. I was glad to hear that you had done so well in your examinations. Let me send you my hearty congratulations. You certainly deserved this result as I know you worked very hard. You ask how I have been spending the time since I took my examinations. I have been waiting so eagerly for the result that, I must admit, I have not done half of the things I planned to do during this extended holiday. However, I have been doing a lot of reading. There were so many different things I was interested in when I was at school and did not have the time to read about because they were not on the syllabus. I have read two books about geology, which is a fascinating subject. I hope to make a hobby of geology when I get to the University. It will make a change from the study of law. i have also read several novels mostly modern ones by authors like Graham Greene, C.S Foster and Somerset Maugham. How enjoyable it is to read a book for pleasure and not for examination! I have not given a thought to law, and not read one book about the subject. I shall have e four long years at the University to devote to it.
I have also been going once or twice a week to the National Boy’s Club. I took part in the table-tennis tournament, but I did not do very well, I’m afraid. I have been playing football for the Club every Sunday afternoon. I will certainly let you know my examination results as soon as I have them. I must say that I become less confident about the result each day. It was encouraging to hear that this was the case with you, and since you did so well perhaps there is still hope for me!
Yours sincerely
Osman.

Osman couldn’t do most of what he had planned for the holiday because

 

 

 

 

 

19.

Comprehension Passage

Dear John,
Many thanks for your letter. I was glad to hear that you had done so well in your examinations. Let me send you my hearty congratulations. You certainly deserved this result as I know you worked very hard. You ask how I have been spending the time since I took my examinations. I have been waiting so eagerly for the result that, I must admit, I have not done half of the things I planned to do during this extended holiday. However, I have been doing a lot of reading. There were so many different things I was interested in when I was at school and did not have the time to read about because they were not on the syllabus. I have read two books about geology, which is a fascinating subject. I hope to make a hobby of geology when I get to the University. It will make a change from the study of law. i have also read several novels mostly modern ones by authors like Graham Greene, C.S Foster and Somerset Maugham. How enjoyable it is to read a book for pleasure and not for examination! I have not given a thought to law, and not read one book about the subject. I shall have e four long years at the University to devote to it.
I have also been going once or twice a week to the National Boy’s Club. I took part in the table-tennis tournament, but I did not do very well, I’m afraid. I have been playing football for the Club every Sunday afternoon. I will certainly let you know my examination results as soon as I have them. I must say that I become less confident about the result each day. It was encouraging to hear that this was the case with you, and since you did so well perhaps there is still hope for me!
Yours sincerely
Osman.

From the passage, we can see that Osman intends to become

 

 

 

 

 

20.

Comprehension Passage

Dear John,
Many thanks for your letter. I was glad to hear that you had done so well in your examinations. Let me send you my hearty congratulations. You certainly deserved this result as I know you worked very hard. You ask how I have been spending the time since I took my examinations. I have been waiting so eagerly for the result that, I must admit, I have not done half of the things I planned to do during this extended holiday. However, I have been doing a lot of reading. There were so many different things I was interested in when I was at school and did not have the time to read about because they were not on the syllabus. I have read two books about geology, which is a fascinating subject. I hope to make a hobby of geology when I get to the University. It will make a change from the study of law. i have also read several novels mostly modern ones by authors like Graham Greene, C.S Foster and Somerset Maugham. How enjoyable it is to read a book for pleasure and not for examination! I have not given a thought to law, and not read one book about the subject. I shall have e four long years at the University to devote to it.
I have also been going once or twice a week to the National Boy’s Club. I took part in the table-tennis tournament, but I did not do very well, I’m afraid. I have been playing football for the Club every Sunday afternoon. I will certainly let you know my examination results as soon as I have them. I must say that I become less confident about the result each day. It was encouraging to hear that this was the case with you, and since you did so well perhaps there is still hope for me!
Yours sincerely
Osman.

Osman became less confident of his result each day but that does not mean that

 

 

 

 

 

21.

Comprehension Passage

One fact that we have to complement is that, in our unconscious mind, we cannot distinguish between a wish and a deed. We are all aware of some of our illogical dreams in which two completely opposite statements can exist side by side – very acceptable in our dreams but unthinkable and illogical in our waking state. Just as our unconscious mind cannot differentiate between the wish to kill somebody in anger and the act of having done so, the young child is unable to make this distinction. The child who angrily wishes his mother to drop dead for not having gratified his needs will traumatized greatly by the actual death of his mother – even if this event is not linked closely in the time with his destructive wishes. He will always take part of or the whole of the blames for the loss of his mother. He will always say to himself – rarely to others – I did it. I am responsible. I was bad, therefore mummy left me. ‘It is well to remember that the child will react in the same manner if he loses a parent by divorce, separation or desertion.

Death is often seen by a child as an impermanent thing and has therefore little distinction from a divorce which he may have an opportunity to see the parent again.

This passage emphasizes 

 

 

 

 

22.

Comprehension Passage

One fact that we have to complement is that, in our unconscious mind, we cannot distinguish between a wish and a deed. We are all aware of some of our illogical dreams in which two completely opposite statements can exist side by side – very acceptable in our dreams but unthinkable and illogical in our waking state. Just as our unconscious mind cannot differentiate between the wish to kill somebody in anger and the act of having done so, the young child is unable to make this distinction. The child who angrily wishes his mother to drop dead for not having gratified his needs will traumatized greatly by the actual death of his mother – even if this event is not linked closely in the time with his destructive wishes. He will always take part of or the whole of the blames for the loss of his mother. He will always say to himself – rarely to others – I did it. I am responsible. I was bad, therefore mummy left me. ‘It is well to remember that the child will react in the same manner if he loses a parent by divorce, separation or desertion.

Death is often seen by a child as an impermanent thing and has therefore little distinction from a divorce which he may have an opportunity to see the parent again.

Our unconscious minds and and dreams are alike in that

 

 

 

 

23.

Comprehension Passage

One fact that we have to complement is that, in our unconscious mind, we cannot distinguish between a wish and a deed. We are all aware of some of our illogical dreams in which two completely opposite statements can exist side by side – very acceptable in our dreams but unthinkable and illogical in our waking state. Just as our unconscious mind cannot differentiate between the wish to kill somebody in anger and the act of having done so, the young child is unable to make this distinction. The child who angrily wishes his mother to drop dead for not having gratified his needs will traumatized greatly by the actual death of his mother – even if this event is not linked closely in the time with his destructive wishes. He will always take part of or the whole of the blames for the loss of his mother. He will always say to himself – rarely to others – I did it. I am responsible. I was bad, therefore mummy left me. ‘It is well to remember that the child will react in the same manner if he loses a parent by divorce, separation or desertion.

Death is often seen by a child as an impermanent thing and has therefore little distinction from a divorce which he may have an opportunity to see the parent again.

The child would feel irresponsible for his mother’s death even if it is connected with his wishes because 

 

 

 

 

24. ‘Traumatized’ as used in the previous passage means

 

 

 

 

25. Previous passage question 23: From the child’s point of view, in what way is death likened to a divorce?

 

 

 

 

26.

Comprehension Passage

Undergraduate students in psychology and education come to their first course in statistics with diverse expectation of and background in mathematics. Some have considerable formal training and quantitative aptitude and look forward to learning statistics. Others – perhaps the majority, including some of those who aspire to postgraduate studies – are less confident in their quantitative skills. They regard a course in statistics as a necessary evil for the understanding or carrying out of research in their chosen fields, but an evil nonetheless.

The third edition, like the predecessors, is directed primarily at the latter audience it was written with the conviction that statistical concepts can be described simply without loss of accuracy and that understanding statistical techniques as research tools can be effectively promoted by discussing them within the context of their application to concrete data rather than as pure abstraction. Further, its contents are limited to those statistical techniques that are widely used in the literature of psychology and to the principle underlying them.

The changes that have been made in this edition reflect both the results of our teaching experience and the increasing prominence being given by statisticians to certain topics. Thus our discussion of some procedures, particularly those in the realm of descriptive statistics, which students grasp easily, have being shortened or rearranged. The treatment of other topics has been expanded. Greater emphasis has been placed on sampling theory, hypothesis testing, and the notion at statistical power.

Question: The book discussed in this passage is about

 

 

 

 

27. Previous Passage: The expression ‘necessary evil’ means that

 

 

 

 

28. From the previous passage, we learn that the book discussed has been

 

 

 

 

29.

Comprehension Passage

Undergraduate students in psychology and education come to their first course in statistics with diverse expectation of and background in mathematics. Some have considerable formal training and quantitative aptitude and look forward to learning statistics. Others – perhaps the majority, including some of those who aspire to postgraduate studies – are less confident in their quantitative skills. They regard a course in statistics as a necessary evil for the understanding or carrying out of research in their chosen fields, but an evil nonetheless.

The third edition, like the predecessors, is directed primarily at the latter audience it was written with the conviction that statistical concepts can be described simply without loss of accuracy and that understanding statistical techniques as research tools can be effectively promoted by discussing them within the context of their application to concrete data rather than as pure abstraction. Further, its contents are limited to those statistical techniques that are widely used in the literature of psychology and to the principle underlying them.

The changes that have been made in this edition reflect both the results of our teaching experience and the increasing prominence being given by statisticians to certain topics. Thus our discussion of some procedures, particularly those in the realm of descriptive statistics, which students grasp easily, have being shortened or rearranged. The treatment of other topics has been expanded. Greater emphasis has been placed on sampling theory, hypothesis testing, and the notion at statistical power.

The changes that were made in the book were motivated by 

 

 

 

 

30.

Comprehension Passage

Undergraduate students in psychology and education come to their first course in statistics with diverse expectation of and background in mathematics. Some have considerable formal training and quantitative aptitude and look forward to learning statistics. Others – perhaps the majority, including some of those who aspire to postgraduate studies – are less confident in their quantitative skills. They regard a course in statistics as a necessary evil for the understanding or carrying out of research in their chosen fields, but an evil nonetheless.

The third edition, like the predecessors, is directed primarily at the latter audience it was written with the conviction that statistical concepts can be described simply without loss of accuracy and that understanding statistical techniques as research tools can be effectively promoted by discussing them within the context of their application to concrete data rather than as pure abstraction. Further, its contents are limited to those statistical techniques that are widely used in the literature of psychology and to the principle underlying them.

The changes that have been made in this edition reflect both the results of our teaching experience and the increasing prominence being given by statisticians to certain topics. Thus our discussion of some procedures, particularly those in the realm of descriptive statistics, which students grasp easily, have being shortened or rearranged. The treatment of other topics has been expanded. Greater emphasis has been placed on sampling theory, hypothesis testing, and the notion at statistical power.

It can be inferred from the passage that the book was written by 

 

 

 

 

31.

Comprehension Passage

Read each passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it
Olumba removed a small black amulet from his neck and substituted a bigger one. The former was for general protection at home, the latter for protection and luck whilst travelling. Ready at last he picked up his matchet and headed for the chief’s with Ikechi behind him.
Olumba worked ahead looking up as usual. Just what he was searching for in the sky Ikechi couldn’t tell. Perhaps his shortness accounted for his habit since, he often had to look up in the faces of his taller companions. What he lacked in height he made up in solid muscles and he looked strong. His wrestling pseudonym was Agadaga, a name which meant nothing but which somehow conveyed an impression of strength.
Eze Diali, the chief, sat at one end f his reception hall ringed by the village elders who he had called to a meeting. The rest of the hall was filled with much younger men.
‘People of Chiolu, the chief began’, I have learnt that poachers from Aliakoro will be at the Great Pond tonight. There is no doubt that they will try to steal from the Pond of Wagaba which as you know is rich in fish. Our plan tonight is to bring one or more of these thieves home alive and ask for very large ransoms. This line of action will have two effects. Firstly, it will prove our charges of poaching against the people of Aliakoro, and secondly, the payment of very large ransom will be a deterrent. We need seven men for this venture. I call for volunteers’
Who will head this party?’ the chief asked, looking round. Chituru, one of the elders, said’ ‘Eze Diali, let us not waste time. Olumba is the man for the job. We all know that he had led many exploits like this one’. We still need six men’, Eze Diali said. Eager youths came surging forward. Their well-formed muscle rippled as they elbowed one another. It was difficult to choose.
‘I suggest Olumba should choose his men He knows the boys very well and his judgment should be reliable’. It was Wezume, another village elder, who spoke.

Olumba wore amulet because he?

 

 

 

 

 

32. In the previous passage on number 31

Olumba looked upwards because

 

 

 

 

 

33. The passage on number 31

‘Poaching’means

 

 

 

 

 

 

34. The passage on number 31

The chief called meeting because

 

 

 

 

 

35.

Comprehension Passage

Farming is the most important aspect of agriculture that has attracted attention within the last few years. Agriculture has several other aspects like fishery, livestock and poultry. All these are also important in that they have to do with the production of food items which human beings consume for survival.

In many parts of world today, farming has been regarded as the mainstay of the economy. Crops such as cocoa, rubber and cotton have been produced in such commercial quantity that they are sold to other countries. Some countries have a better comparative advantage in producing certain farm crops than other countries. In these other countries, there is the need to spend a lot of money on agriculture, particularly farming. Most farmers use outmoded tools. A lot of them have no place to store their crops, most of which are always destroyed by insects and pests before harvest time. All these have adverse effects on their productivity.

The government can do a lot to help farmers. Farmers’ co-operative societies can be encouraged and loans can be made available to farmers through government institutions, like banks and finance corporations. Farmers can be taught how to build good storage structures for their produce. All these and a lot more can help to improve the condition of farming in these countries.

The most important aspect of agriculture mentioned in the passage is?

 

 

 

 

36. In the previous passage

Farming in many countries today is

 

 

 

 

37. In the previous passage

Some countries produce more and better crops than others because the farmers in the former

 

 

 

 

 

38. In the Previous passage

In order to help improve the state of farming, the government should

 

 

 

 

39. In the previous passage

A lot crop harvested are wasted because farmers

 

 

 

 

40.

Comprehension Passage

All too often, there is deference between what we say and what we think we have said, and between how we feel we have handled people and how they think they have been treated. When such ‘gaps’ occur between the intent and the action, it is often stated that there has been ‘a break- down in communication ’. Sometimes the break – down is allowed to become so serious that the gap becomes a chasm, relatives in family ceasing to speak to one another, managements and trade unions refusing to meet, government recalling ambassadors when relations between states reach a low ebb.

 

In fact, sometimes when people communicate, either as individual or within groups, problems inevitably occur; instruction maybe impossible to carry out, offence is taken at a particular remark, a directive is ambiguously phrased or people’s attitudes are colored by jealousy, resentment or frustration.

During the past fifty years, industrial, commercial and public service organization have grown prodigiously to meet the needs of advanced technological societies. Sometimes as many as 10,000 people work on one site, or one company employs more than 50,000 people. Clearly, good communications are essential to the efficient operation of any organization, and vital to the fulfillment of al those who commit their working lives to it.
For this reason, management specialist and behavioral scientist have devoted much thought and energy over recent years to analyzing the problems caused by bad communication practices, and creating good communication climate and systems.

As a result of the current structure of societies and economies, most of us spend our working lives in an organization that we become good communicators with social skills.

 

Which of the following titles best sums up the passage?

 

 

 

 

41. According to the previous passage, which of the following are NOT likely to contribute to a break down in communication?

 

 

 

 

42. From the previous text, it can be inferred that a good communicator needs to

 

 

 

 

43. In the previous passage

‘Chasm’ as used in the passage means

 

 

 

 

44. The most essential tool of communication not specifically mentioned in this passage is

 

 

 

 

45.

Comprehension Passage

It may be argued that museums as an institution and an agency for transmitting cultural heritage are an artificial creature, so far as objects are removed from their natural or proper environments and put into museums which are a different environment altogether. However, it seems that museums themselves have come to be accepted and recognized as the best equipped institutions devised by man for the assemblage of cultural objects and their presentation and preservation for the present and future generations.

The artificial character of museums is however being gradually transformed into a cultural reality. Thus, just as one goes to the theatre for plays and other performing arts; the mosque, the church or the shrine for worship; the library for the printed word; today, it is to the museums one goes to see evidence of man’s material outfit. For, no other institution or place so readily comes to mind as museums do when evidence of material culture is sought. Herein lies the importance of museums as cultural institutions and an agency for transmitting culture.

Museums are an artificial creation because ?

 

 

 

 

46. According to the passage which of the following is NOT part of the main functions of museums?

 

 

 

 

47. According to the passage The evidence of material culture can best be sought in the

 

 

 

 

48. Which of the following phrases in the passage does NOT express the artificial character of museums?

 

 

 

 

49. …..no other institution of place so readily comes to mind as museums’ means that museums are

 

 

 

 

50.

Comprehension Passage

IF economists were a bit more modest, they would admit that no one knows exactly how many Nigerians there are. The National population Bureau estimated that there would be 116 million in 1986, but this figure was derived from projections based on the much disputed figures of the 1963 census, using an annual population growth rate that was at best a guess work. Notwithstanding that the margin of error could be as large as a plus 20 million; economists have still felt confident to speak of Nigeria’s per capita income, birth and mortality rates literacy rate and so on, as if they were quoting precise figures.

So much Nigerians is determined on the basis of the population that the lack of accurate figures has a significantly adverse effect on policies. One obviously affected area is development planning, which for the lack of reliable data, frequently looks like an exercise in futility. An example of what happens is the country’s Universal Primary Education (UPE) scheme launched in 1976. Policy makers had expected, on the basis of the 1975/76 primary school enrolment of just fewer than 5 million, that they would not have to cope with much more than 6 million school children in the first year. But the enrolment in 1976/77 turned out to be 8.4 million rising to 10.1 million the following year. The unanticipated cost of catering for the large number was the main cause of the collapse of that worth scheme after only four years.

Population also plays an important role in revenue allocation, specifically in the sharing of the states’ portion of the Federation Account, some percentage of which is based on population or population-related factors. Because of the contentious nature of the subject, the compromise has been to estimate based on the 1963 census figures, even when such a move produces ridiculous situations. It is for all these reasons that the Babangida Administration’s effort to ascertain the nation’s population is such a worthwhile venture.

It would be more realistic of economist to  ?

 

 

 

 





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